Thursday, March 19, 2020
1984 Essay Essay Example 1984 Essay Essay 1984 Essay Essay Essay Topic: 1984 1984 Essay In the book 1984 by George Orwell, many different ideas about the government and its power are discussed by the main character Winston. At one point in the book Winston says Ã¢â¬Å"It is impossible to found a civilization on fear and hatred and cruelty. It would never endure. Ã¢â¬ in reference to the state of the government at that point in time. However, this can be proven false by the actions of the government, the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s response, and the determination the government uses to ensure their ultimate power and control. The government in 1984 is very powerful and does not shy away from exerting its unrelenting force upon its people. The government craves complete and total control and does whatever it takes to get its people to cooperate and behave. The government goes as far to invent a fictional war to influence people to feel sympathy for the government and make them feel more willing to help. They even go as far as launching missiles at their own people to instill fear into the hearts of the citizens. The government also has an organization called the thought police that do their best to control peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and try to keep people from thinking negative things about the government or prevent them from starting some sort of revolution. The actions that they take are built off cruelty and causing fear, which in turn keep the governments people in line. When the government is going to such extreme lengths to fake a war and tell lies to control its people, people will be sure to react. However, not many people know of the true nature of the government because they grew up hearing these lies since the beginning, and if people do start to question the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions then they are killed and or tortured. The people react exactly how the government wants them to, because if they step out of line, then they are sure to be killed. The government has that much control and the people in charge have such a need for power that they keep taking more and more. The government and people inside the government are shown to have a large amount of determination, especially when they begin torturing Winston. Winston proves to be very strong willed and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t break easily. However the government stays diligent and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give up and they eventually break Winston. The government breaks Winston by enforcing cruel punishment and sparking fear in him, and if they could break Winston this way, then they could break anyone. The government uses fear to build their government, in fact, the only basis that their government is really built on is fear. Fear controls people. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s determination, peoples response to their actions, and their actions themselves prove that a civilization could be founded on the basis of Ã¢â¬Å"fear, hatred and crueltyÃ¢â¬ .
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Biography of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Unifier of Japan Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1539Ã¢â¬âSeptember 18, 1598) was the leader of Japan who reunified the country after 120 years of political fragmentation. During his rule, known as the Momoyama or Peach Mountain age, the country was united as a more-or-less peaceful federation of 200 independent daimyo (great lords), with himself as an imperial regent. Fast Facts: Toyotomi Hideyoshi Known For: Ruler of Japan, reunified the countryBorn: 1536 in Nakamura, Owari Province, JapanParents: Farmer and part-time soldier Yaemon and his wifeDied: September 18, 1598 at Fushimi castle, KyotoEducation: Trained as a military aide to Matsushita Yukitsana (1551Ã¢â¬â1558), then with Oda Nobunaga (1558Ã¢â¬â1582)Published Works: The Tensho-ki, a biography he commissionedSpouse(s): Chacha (principal concubine and mother of his children)Children: Tsurumatsu (1580Ã¢â¬â1591), Toyotomi Hideyori (1593Ã¢â¬â1615) Early Life Toyotomi Hideyoshi was born in 1536, in Nakamura, Owari Province, Japan.Ã He was the second child of Yaemon, a peasant farmer and part-time soldier for the Oda clan, who died in 1543Ã when the boy was 7 years old and his sister was about 10. HideyoshiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother soon remarried. Her new husband also served Oda Nobuhide, the daimyo of the Owari region, and she had another son and daughter. Hideyoshi was small for his age and skinny. His parents sent him to a temple to get an education, but the boy ran away seeking adventure. In 1551, he joined the service of Matsushita Yukitsuna, a retainer of the powerful Imagawa family in Totomi province. This was unusual because both HideyoshiÃ¢â¬â¢s father and his stepfather had served the Oda clan. Joining Oda Hideyoshi returned home in 1558 and offered his service to Oda Nobunaga, son of the daimyo. At the time, the Imagawa clans army of 40,000 was invading Owari, HideyoshiÃ¢â¬â¢s home province. Hideyoshi took a huge gamble- the Oda army numbered only about 2,000.Ã In 1560, the Imagawa and Oda armies met in battle at Okehazama.Ã Oda NobunagaÃ¢â¬â¢s tiny force ambushed the Imagawa troops in a driving rainstorm and scored an incredible victory, driving the invaders away. Legend says that 24-year-old Hideyoshi served in this battle as NobunagaÃ¢â¬â¢s sandal-bearer. However, Hideyoshi does not appear in NobunagaÃ¢â¬â¢s surviving writings until the early 1570s. Promotion Six years later, Hideyoshi led a raid that captured Inabayama Castle for the Oda clan. Oda Nobunaga rewarded him by making him a general. In 1570, Nobunaga attacked his brother-in-lawÃ¢â¬â¢s castle, Odani. Hideyoshi led the first three detachments of one thousand samurai each against the well-fortified castle. NobunagaÃ¢â¬â¢s army used the devastating new technology of firearms, rather than horse-mounted swordsmen. Muskets are not much use against castle walls, however, so HideyoshiÃ¢â¬â¢s section of the Oda army settled in for a siege. By 1573, Nobunagas troops had defeated all of its enemies in the area. For his part, Hideyoshi received the daimyo-ship of three regions within Omi Province. By 1580, Oda Nobunaga had consolidated power in over 31 of Japans 66 provinces. Upheaval In 1582, Nobunagas general Akechi Mitsuhide turned his army against his lord, attacking and overrunning Nobunagas castle. Nobunagas diplomatic machinations had caused the hostage-murder of Mitsuhides mother.Ã Mitsuhide forced Oda Nobunaga and his eldest son to commit seppuku. Hideyoshi captured one of Mitsuhides messengers and learned of Nobunagas death the next day. He and other Oda generals, including Tokugawa Ieyasu, raced to avenge their lords death. Hideyoshi caught up with Mitsuhide first, defeating and killing him at the Battle of Yamazaki just 13 days after Nobunagas death. A succession fight erupted in the Oda clan. Hideyoshi supported Nobunagas grandson Oda Hidenobu. Tokugawa Ieyasu preferred the oldest remaining son Oda Nobukatsu. Hideyoshi prevailed, installing Hidenobu as the new Oda daimyo. Throughout 1584, Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu engaged in intermittent skirmishes, none decisive. At the Battle of Nagakute, Hideyoshis troops were crushed, but Ieyasu lost three of his top generals. After eight months of this costly fighting, Ieyasu sued for peace. Hideyoshi now controlled 37 provinces. In conciliation, Hideyoshi distributed lands to his defeated foes in the Tokugawa and Shibata clans. He also granted lands to Samboshi and Nobutaka. This was a clear signal that he was taking power in his own name. Hideyoshi Reunifies Japan In 1583, Hideyoshi began construction on Osaka Castle, a symbol of his power and intent to rule all of Japan. Like Nobunaga, he refused the title of Shogun. Some courtiers doubted a farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s son could legally claim that title. Hideyoshi circumvented the potentially embarrassing debate by taking the title of kampaku, or regent, instead.Ã Hideyoshi then ordered the dilapidated Imperial Palace restored, and offered gifts of money to the cash-strapped imperial family. Hideyoshi also decided to bring the southern island of Kyushu under his authority. This island was home to the primary trading ports through which goods from China, Korea, Portugal, and other nations made their way into Japan. Many of the daimyo of Kyushu had converted to Christianity under the influence of Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries. Some had been converted by force, and Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines were destroyed. In November 1586, Hideyoshi sent a huge invasion force to Kyushu, totaling some 250,000 troops. A number of local daimyo rallied to his side as well, so it did not take long for the massive army to crush all resistance. As usual, Hideyoshi confiscated all of the land and then returned smaller portions to his defeated foes and rewarded his allies with much larger fiefdoms. He also ordered the expulsion of all Christian missionaries on Kyushu. The final reunification campaign took place in 1590. Hideyoshi sent another huge army, probably more than 200,000 men, to conquer the mighty Hojo clan, which ruled the area around Edo (now Tokyo).Ã Ieyasu and Oda Nobukatsu led the army, joined by a naval force to bottle up the Hojo resistance from the sea. The defiant daimyo Hojo Ujimasa withdrew to Odawara Castle and settled in to wait out Hideyoshi. After six months, Hideyoshi sent in Ujimasas brother to ask for the Hojo daimyos surrender. He refused, and Hideyoshi launched a three-day, all-out attack on the castle. Ujimasa finally sent his son to surrender the castle. Hideyoshi ordered Ujimasa to commit seppuku. He confiscated the domainsÃ and sent Ujimasas son and brother into exile. The great Hojo clan was obliterated. Hideyoshis Reign In 1588, Hideyoshi forbade all Japanese citizens besides samurai from owning weapons. This Sword Hunt angered farmers and warrior-monks, who traditionally had kept weapons and participated in wars and rebellions. Hideyoshi wanted to clarify the boundaries between the various social classes in JapanÃ and to prevent uprisings by the monks and peasants. Three years later, Hideyoshi issued another order forbidding anyone from hiring ronin, the wandering samurai with no masters. Towns also were barred from allowing farmers to become traders or craftsmen. The Japanese social order was to be set in stone. If you were born a farmer, you died a farmer. If you were a samurai born into the service of a particular daimyo, there you stayed. Hideyoshi himself rose from the peasant class to become kampaku. Nonetheless, this hypocritical order helped to usher in a centuries-long era of peace and stability. In order to keep the daimyo in check, Hideyoshi ordered them to send their wives and children to the capital city as hostages. The daimyo themselves would spend alternating years in their fiefs and in the capital. This system, called sankin kotai or alternate attendance, was codified in 1635 and continued until 1862. Finally, Hideyoshi also ordered a nationwide population censusÃ and a survey of all the lands. It measured not only the exact sizes of the different domainsÃ but also the relative fertility and expected crop yield. All of this information was key for setting taxation rates. Succession Problems Hideyoshis only children were two boys, from his principal concubine Chacha (also known as Yodo-dono or Yodo-gimi), the daughter of Oda Nobunagas sister. In 1591, Hideyoshis only son, a toddler named Tsurumatsu, suddenly died, followed soon by Hideyoshis half-brother Hidenaga. The kampaku adopted Hidenagas son Hidetsugu as his heir. In 1592, Hideyoshi became the taiko or retired regent, while Hidetsugu took the title of kampaku. This retirement was in name only, however- Hideyoshi maintained his hold on power. The following year, however, Hideyoshis concubine Chacha gave birth to a new son. This baby, Hideyori, represented a serious threat to Hidetsugu. Hideyoshi had a substantial force of bodyguards posted to protect the child from any attack by his uncle. Hidetsugu developed a bad reputation across the country as a cruel and blood-thirsty man. He was known to drive out into the countryside with his musket and shoot down farmers in their fields just for practice. He also played executioner, relishing the job of chopping up convicted criminals with his sword. Hideyoshi could not tolerate this dangerous and unstable man, who posed an obvious threat to the baby Hideyori. In 1595, he accused Hidetsugu of plotting to overthrow him and ordered him to commit seppuku. Hidetsugus head was displayed on the city walls after his death. Shockingly, Hideyoshi also ordered Hidetsugus wives, concubines, and children all to be brutally executed except for a one-month-old daughter. This excessive cruelty was not an isolated incident in Hideyoshis later years. He also ordered his friend and tutor, the tea-ceremony master Rikyu, to commit seppuku at the age of 69 in 1591. In 1596, he ordered the crucifixion of six shipwrecked Spanish Franciscan missionaries, three Japanese Jesuits, and 17 Japanese Christians at Nagasaki. Invasions of Korea Throughout the late 1580s and early 1590s, Hideyoshi sent a number of emissaries to King Seonjo of Korea, demanding safe passage through the country for the Japanese army. Hideyoshi informed the Joseon king that he intended to conquer Ming China and India. The Korean ruler made no reply to these messages. In February 1592, 140,000 Japanese army troops arrived in an armada of some 2,000 boats and ships. It attacked Busan, in southeastern Korea.Ã In weeks, the Japanese advanced to the capital city of Seoul. King Seonjo and his court fled north, leaving the capital to be burned and looted. By July, the Japanese held Pyeongyang as well. The battle-hardened samurai troops cut through the Korean defenders like a sword through butter, to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s concern. The land war went Hideyoshis way, but Korean naval superiority made life difficult for the Japanese. The Korean fleet had better weaponry and more experienced sailors. It also had a secret weapon- the iron-clad turtle ships, which were nearly invulnerable to Japans underpowered naval cannon. Cut off from their food and ammunition supplies, the Japanese army got bogged down in the mountains of northern Korea. Korean Admiral Yi Sun Shin scored a devastating victory over Hideyoshis navy at the Battle of Hansan-do on August 13, 1592. Hideyoshi ordered his remaining ships to cease engagements with the Korean navy.Ã In January 1593, the Wanli Emperor of China sent 45,000 troops to reinforce the beleaguered Koreans. Together, the Koreans and Chinese pushed Hideyoshis army out of Pyeongyang. The Japanese were pinned down and with their navy unable to deliver supplies, they began to starve.Ã In mid-May1593, Hideyoshi relented and ordered his troops home to Japan. He did not give up his dream of a mainland empire, however. In August 1597, Hideyoshi sent a second invasion force against Korea. This time, however, the Koreans and their Chinese allies were better prepared. They stopped the Japanese army short of Seoul and forced them back toward Busan in a slow, grinding drive. Meanwhile, Admiral Yi set out to crush Japans rebuilt naval forces once more. Death Hideyoshis grand imperial scheme came to an end on September 18, 1598, when the taiko died. On his deathbed, Hideyoshi repented sending his army into this Korean quagmire. He said, Dont let my soldiers become spirits in a foreign land. Hideyoshis biggest concern as he lay dying, however, was the fate of his heir. Hideyori was only 5 years old and unable to assume his fathers powers, so Hideyoshi set up the Council of Five Elders to rule as his regents until he came of age. This council included Tokugawa Ieyasu, HideyoshiÃ¢â¬â¢s one-time rival. The old taiko extracted vows of loyalty to his little son from a number of other senior daimyo and sent precious gifts of gold, silk robes, and swords to all the important political players. He also made personal appeals to the Council members to protect and serve Hideyori faithfully. Hideyoshis Legacy The Council of Five Elders kept the taikos death a secret for several months while they withdrew the Japanese army from Korea. With that piece of business complete, though, the council broke down into two opposing camps. On one side was Tokugawa Ieyasu. On the other were the remaining four elders. Ieyasu wanted to take power for himself. The others supported little Hideyori. In 1600, the two forces came to blows in the Battle of Sekigahara. Ieyasu prevailedÃ and declared himself shogun. Hideyori was confined to Osaka Castle. In 1614, the 21-year-old Hideyori began to gather soldiers, preparing to challenge Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu launched the Siege of Osaka in November, forcing him to disarm and sign a peace pact. The next spring, Hideyori tried again to gather troops. The Tokugawa army launched an all-out attack on Osaka Castle, reducing sections to rubble with their cannon and setting the castle on fire. Hideyori and his mother committed seppuku. His 8-year-old son was captured by the Tokugawa forces and beheaded. That was the end of the Toyotomi clan. The Tokugawa shoguns would rule Japan until the Meiji Restoration of 1868. Although his lineage did not survive, Hideyoshis influence on Japanese culture and politics was enormous. He solidified the class structure, unified the nation under central control, and popularized cultural practices such as the tea ceremony. Hideyoshi finished the unification begun by his lord, Oda Nobunaga, setting the stage for the peace and stability of the Tokugawa Era. Sources Berry, Mary Elizabeth. Hideyoshi. Cambridge: The Harvard University Press, 1982.Ã Hideyoshi, Toyotomi. 101 Letters of Hideyoshi: The Private Correspondence of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Sophia University, 1975.Turnbull, Stephen. Toyotomi Hideyoshi: Leadership, Strategy, Conflict. Osprey Publishing, 2011.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The Problem of Increasing Litigation Costs - Case Study Example The case of Weissensteiner was important in that it raised the issue of circumstantial evidence pointing to the accusedÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt, however, the Court held that the failure of the accused to give evidence did not itself construe an implication of guilt. The Court stated clearly that in an accusatorial trial, the failure of an accused to give evidence Ã¢â¬Å"cannot fill any gaps in the prosecution caseÃ¢â¬ (Weissensteiner @50) and it cannot be used as a factor in determining whether the prosecution has proved its case beyond a reasonable doubt. Therefore the failure of a witness to give evidence was not to be associated with inferences of guilt. Ã Ã Ã Ã Section 20(2) of the Evidence Act states clearly that the judge or other parties may comment on the failure of the accused to provide an explanation for evidence that exists against him. Therefore, the position taken by the judges in the RPS case was a valid one. Firstly, in their judgment, the silence of the accused was not excused in the manner of Weissensteiner. The prosecution, in this case, failed to call a witness that it should have and Justices questioned: Ã¢â¬Å"whether in the circumstances, the jury should entertain a reasonable doubt about the guilt of the accusedÃ¢â¬ (RPS@633). Secondly, in this case, the Court applied a similar reasoning as it did in the case of Azzopardi v The Queen, where it stated that the position the Court adopted in Weissensteiner would be justified only if Ã¢â¬Å"there is a basis for concluding that there additional facts which would explain or contradict the inference which the prosecution seeks to have the jury draw.Ã¢â¬ Ã Thirdly, Ã Justice McHugh also commented on the history of the right to silence and adopted the position that the right to silence allowed to the accused was no more than an Ã¢â¬Å"invention of lawyersÃ¢â¬ to protect their clients from incriminating themselves. (Azzopardi @101). The position taken in the majority opinion of Judges in the RPS case was that the Jury could reasonably draw an adverse inference if the accused failed to give evidence since his silence would amount to a tacit admission of guilt. Ã
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The Digital Revolution - Research Paper Example Company websites may employ domestic or global strategies in their e-commerce transactions (Bajaj, Debjani & Kamlesh, 2005). Websites with a domestic e-commerce strategy main seek to serve businesses and customers within the geographical boundaries of a country. In contrast, Bajaj, Debjani & Kamlesh observe that websites with a global focus aim towards promoting transactions between customers and businesses across global and international markets. Firms implementing global e-commerce need to address financial issues, legal issues and market access challenges such as cultural differences and language barriers. There are three main classifications for websites, namely transaction, promotion and content sites (Bajaj, Debjani & Kamlesh, 2005). Transaction sites are websites designed to enhance virtual or online transactions. This is mostly applicable for online business ventures that do not have the traditional brick and mortar model or any other physical presence. This site is more appr opriate for businesses dealing with specialized product categories. Promotional sites are those designed specifically for information and communication purposes with the aim of supplementing marketing activities and strengthening relationships. It is appropriate for companies seeking to develop the global presence and develop new channels of communication. Lastly, content websites are designed to provide customers and prospects with accurate and reliable content to aid in their buying process.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Technologies Used in Aged Care Facilities Table of Contents (Jump to) Technologies used in Aged care facilities Introduction Diffusion of technology in everyday lives Technologies used in Aged care facilities Enhancing the nature of aged care in the communities The need of assistive technologies in the aged Conclusion References Technologies used in Aged care facilities Introduction Elderly care, or just elder care, is the satisfaction of the extraordinary needs and necessities that are one of a kind to senior nationals. This expansive term includes such administrations as supported living, grown-up day consideration, nursing homes, hospice care, and home care (Study of Health Care for the Aged, 1962). In view of the wide assortment of elderly care discovered comprehensively, and additionally separating social viewpoints on elderly subjects, cant to be constrained to any one practice. Elderly care underlines the social and individual prerequisites of senior subjects who require some aid with day by day exercises and medical services, however who craving to age with nobility (Study of Health Care for the Aged, 1962). It is a critical qualification, in that the configuration of lodging, administrations, exercises, representative preparing and such ought to be genuinely client focused. It is likewise huge that a lot of worldwide elderly care falls under the unpaid business sector part. The use of technology to support autonomous living and the promotion of independence of more elderly persons will be of principle concern nowadays to help the elderly (HÃ ¤ggblom-KronlÃ ¶f Sonn, 2007). There are Government and non-government activities which, albeit not particularly focused on at mechanical intercessions for more established persons, could contribute towards supporting agreeable and stately living in this area of the general public. There exists an endless extent of innovation intercessions for the welfare of elderly individuals in the nation so that the innovations are available, moderate and versatile to the particular needs. Innovative mediations can incredibly help in attaining to these goals by giving key inputs and abilities. Diffusion of technology in everyday lives Simultaneously, as the individuals grow older, we are seeing remarkable improvement and the dissemination of, innovation in all parts of regular life. Right now, all types of innovation, including PCs, correspondences, security, and health observing gadgets, are being utilized to perform routine assignments and exercises (Katz, 2004). The utilization of technology has turned into a basic part of work, training, correspondence, and excitement. Technology is additionally being progressively utilized as a part of the human services stadium for the conveyance of administrations, in-home checking, intelligent correspondence (e.g., in patient and doctor), the exchange of health data, and associate backing. As correspondence conventions advance, we can foresee more modern system applications that can give speedier and all the more capable intuitive administrations later on. Smart advances will likewise progressively get to be installed in our associations with nature, and robots performing day by day errands will be typical. Individuals of all ages will interface with some manifestation of innovation to capacity autonomously and draw in successfully in their surroundings. Technology has awesome potential for enhancing the personal satisfaction for the elderly individuals. For instance, health applications and websites will enhance the physical and emotional prosperity of elderly individuals (Hsu, Yen, Pai Chang, 2014). Technology can likewise empower older individuals to stay joined with family and companions, particularly with the individuals who are far off. Technology can likewise help elderly individuals stay utilized and keep up or overhaul their aptitudes, or it can facilitate the move to retirement. Technologies used in Aged care facilities We need to be clear about two things from the beginning. One, technology will never remain to supplant the human cooperation that involves the very emotion of caring for the aged (Deasley, 1992). Nor will it ever supplant the empathy, generosity, sympathy and seen between care suppliers and the individuals in our general public who are dependent on care and presented to significant vulnerabilities. Two, Progressions in innovation likewise do little in the method for offering a one-size-fits-all answer for unravelling all the heap difficulties standing up to the care of age division, including a maturing population, more intricate health issues, deficiencies of talented staff, and spiralling expenses and pressures of funding (Baker, 2003). For some, the internal workings of a private aged- care centers will regularly invoke visions of time-denied guardians surging between occupants with unlimited surges of research material in tow (Chantler, 2004). Be that as it may, as more associations move from utilizing paper-based frameworks, to incorporate, electronic frameworks, this site will turn into a relic of days gone by. In particular, electronic consideration administration applications are turning into a quick segment inside numerous private aged care office all through the countries, giving care and nursing staff with the capacity to convey more proficient and successful consideration. The improved electronic accumulation of data at the occupants bedside guarantees more noteworthy precision of inhabitant records, while quick access to this data gives care and nursing staff with the capacity to be more responsive in their day by day consideration procurements. Indecipherable documentation is being supplanted by electronic consideration arranges that bolster individual focused inhabitant care and supportive care offices to all the more viably show and guarantee agreeability. Essentially, electronic medicine organization empowers care and nursing staff to all the more successfully organize, screen, and manage solutions and give more precise and opportune drug data for staff, and further enhance inhabitant wellbeing. Supplanting paper-based records with exhaustive electronic records additionally encourages the stream of this data between the more extensive social insurance group, including doctors facilities, therapeutic professionals, drug stores, pros and other consideration experts (Weber-Jahnke Mason-Blakley, 2011). Whether it is transitioning an inhabitant from a consideration home to a clinic in a crisis, or to an elective meeting with an expert, electronic occupant records assume a significant part in conveying the most applicable and critical data for every inhabitant. By streamlining the way individual data are recorded, prepared and got to, it doesnt just make more noteworthy efficiencies and diminishes the likelihood of human sleep, additionally moves a generous measure of staff time from lumbering research material to retire, giving eye to eye occupant consideration. The outcome for the inhabitants is more quality time with consideration and nursing staff, and access to a higher standard of value care and backing. Aged care residential facilities are likewise stretching out broadband web access to their occupants, which is an effective instrument in building a feeling of having a place, backing and association (Reymond, Israel Charles, 2011). Applications that have video support, talk, email and other online interchanges guarantee occupants can rapidly and effortlessly associate with relatives, close companions and the group, which can altogether add to a more prominent personal satisfaction (Communications Technology and the Elderly, 1984). Enhancing the nature of aged care in the communities Advancement in technology for aged care raises the possibility to upgrade the nature of aging care by enabling care providers with approaches to: Enhance operational efficiencies; Diminish risks and dangers (Toba, 2007); Expand ability to oversee constrained resources successfully; Also, in particular, give care and nursing staff additional time and space to convey customized care and backing. There is an extensive variety of data innovation and programming being solely produced for the aged care division. Large portions of which incorporate private and group care-particular applications that cooperate to absolutely impact the nature of consideration and bolster administrations conveyed. Technology based arrangements can likewise all the while improve the nature of the consideration and the personal satisfaction of elderly individuals that decide to live in their own homes (Science, Technology and World Advancement, 1962). Actually, advancement in technology is empowering the maturing populace to stay independent for more, expanding the measure of time they can keep up autonomy in their own homes, where they are generally agreeable. Shrewd planning and rostering frameworks are upgrading availability of customized consideration benefits in the most proficient ways. The most proper consideration workers can consequently be dispensed to a particular customer taking into account a thorough rundown of foreordained criteria. These incorporate variables, for example, staff accessibility, area, travel necessities, experience, capabilities, and abilities, progression of consideration, and vitally, the individual care needs and inclinations of the individual accepting the consideration. This permits an association to convey more adaptable and customized consideration, subsequently driving enhanced results for the customer. The procurement of online correspondence portals can further improve the customers experience by permitting them or their families to effortlessly focus when and where the consideration visits are planned, and select which mind specialist they might want to convey the consideration. The utilization of portable handheld gadgets is additionally helpfully giving consideration specialists access to vital insights about the customer, clinical information and other critical data paying little heed to their area in the field. The ability to give data to give a second thought laborer continuously and record redesigns of this data for the purpose of considering, enormously builds the nature of the consideration and bolster that is being conveyed. Above all, less time spent on research material means more individuals associated with the customer. With progressions in rapid broadband, feature conferencing is progressively being used to look for guidance from consideration suppliers, medical professionals and different experts on the web. This can diminish the anxiety connected with travel, especially for those customers in remote areas. Group care associations can likewise use assistive advances that help care workers stay receptive to customer needs, notwithstanding when assets are restricted. The utilization of insightful sensors and alarms can help keep up the customers freedom at home, while consequently alarming a consideration specialist if a surprising action is identified. The aftereffect of actualizing such advancements is a higher standard of the watch over the elderly individual in their own particular home. The need of assistive technologies in the aged Aids or other adaptive equipments are that are commonly used by the elderly are coming under assistive technologies. Assistive technology is characterized as any hardware or a framework that helps individuals who experience issues, because of age or disability, in doing ordinary exercises. It covers basic things, for example, strolling sticks, shower seats and snatch railed, and in addition electro-mechanical gear (e.g. Powered wheelchairs), electronic helps (e.g. Advanced portable amplifiers and ecological controls), or gear utilized by caretakers, for example, lifting guides (Zhang, 1988). In particular assistive technology is crucial for good health for elderly individuals to keep up their quality of life through the authority of their own surroundings and removal of obstructions to self- determination. In very old aged individuals living at home the two key regions for Assistive Technology will be essential -mobility, for example, strolling frames or wheelchairs and in home hard ware, for example, shower seats and rails for security and to support exercises of every day living (Miskelly, 2001). Elderly need boundary free situations, proper empowering gadgets and administrations that incorporate need evaluation, preparing, repair and support of the empowering gadgets. Enhanced innovation has expanded the accessibility of gadgets, whats more, guides that enhance significantly the nature of life of elderly and debilitated persons. Further improvements are required on next generation assistive gadgets, whats more, frameworks that engage elderly persons and maturing residents to assume a full part in society, build their self-rule and understand their potential. There is developing concentration on home changes that can make a huge distinction to whether an individual is safe and has the personal satisfaction in their home. Assistive technology is likewise key for staff to have the capacity to carry out their occupation, especially in the fields of individual care, word related treatment, physiotherapy, podiatry and exercise physiology. Private offices depend on an expansive mixed bag of gear to give care. Assistive technology is key on the off chance that an individual is incapable to shoulder their own weight in request to give security to customers and safe manual taking care of for staff. Conclusion Present day experimental and technological progressions have opened up new potential outcomes for elderly care to backing comfortable and noble living of elderly.. Capacities of current advances coupled with customary learning frameworks assume an imperative part in using tremendous available assets for advantage of the elderly at moderate expenses. Numerous health awareness ventures are arranging themselves for creating therapeutics by adjusting the process of maturing and age-related sicknesses. Technologies can assume crucial part in such group living spots. Innovative application in the field of amusement and entertainment is seen as a developing field which has utility both in urban and country areas. The accomplishment of innovative applications for elderly relies on upon arrangements and projects that advance healthy ageing. The human advantages that these advances guarantee will unquestionably be advanced by an elderly-mind framework which acknowledges new innovations intended to solace them (Using technology to improve healthcare for elderly people, 2008). Some of the innovations said in this paper can undoubtedly be executed through joint endeavors of government, intentional or non-government organizations and industry. References Baker, L. (2003). The Relationship Between Technology Availability And Health Care Spending. Health Affairs. Chantler, C. (2004). Health-care technology assessment: a clinical perspective. International Journal Of Technology Assessment In Health Care, 20 (01). Communications Technology and the Elderly. (1984). Journal Of Gerontology, 39 (6), 766-767. Deasley, P. (1992). Humans and technology: the twain meet. Manuf. Eng, 71 (8), 9. HÃ ¤ggblom-KronlÃ ¶f, G., Sonn, U. (2007). Use of assistive devicesÃ¢â¬âa reality full of contradictions in elderly persons everyday life. Disability Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 2 (6), 335-345. Hsu, H., Yen, N., Pai, T., Chang, M. (2014). PERSONAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT ON A SMARTPHONE PLATFORM. Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis And Communications, 26 (04), 1440004. Katz, J. (2004). Everyday lives and extraordinary research methods. Social Science Information, 43 (4), 609-619. Miskelly, F. (2001). Assistive technology in elderly care. Age And Ageing, 30 (6), 455-458. New elderly care service. (2000). Nurs Residential Care, 2 (6), 261-262. Reymond, L., Israel, F., Charles, M. (2011). A residential aged care end-of-life care pathway (RAC EoLCP) for Australian aged care facilities. Australian Health Review, 35 (3), 350. Science, Technology and World Advancement. (1962). Nature, 193 (4814), 416-420. Study of Health Care for the Aged. (1962). Nursing Research, 11 (1), 37. Toba, K. (2007). Risk assessment for falls in the elderly population. Geriatrics Gerontology International, 8, S26-S28. Using technology to improve healthcare for elderly people. (2008). Independent Nurse, 2008 (7). Weber-Jahnke, J., Mason-Blakley, F. (2011). The safety of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems. ACM SIGHIT Record, 1 (2), 13-22. Zhang, D. (1988). IMPROVING THE CURVING PERFORMANCE OF POWERED BOGIES AND OPTIMIZING WHEEL/RAIL CONTACT CONDITIONS. Vehicle System Dynamics, 17 (sup1), 555-558.
Friday, January 17, 2020
TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s sexismÃ¢â¬âfrom widespread violence and degrading ideas to inequality at the workplace and unpaid labor at homeÃ¢â¬âreaches into every corner of our lives. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression stems from the nature of our deeply unequal society, and a system that needs to divide and conquer in order to survive. People of all genders are fighting back! Grassroots mobilizations against sexual assault, victim-blaming and attacks on our reproductive rights are providing a glimpse of the potential to build a new movement for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. From Egypt to Yemen to Madrid, women are demanding a place at the forefront of struggles for democracy and economic justice. Sexism in our society leads to multiple negative outcomes for women. Although traditional therapeutic approaches as well as preventive interventions address the specific negative outcomes of sexism, they rarely utilize a social justice approach. The deleterious effects of sexism occur complexly; sexist interpersonal events often occur within family systems that may endorse traditional gender roles, which exist within a societal and cultural context that contains formalized sexist policies. These multifaceted, ingrained circumstances delineate the need for preventive social justice to address sexism on multiple levels. As our society continues to evolve, with the advancements in technology, so does sexism and discrimination. It is just molded differently to accommodate our modern day society. Women do two-thirds of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s work for only five percent of the income, according to Unifem, the United Nations Development Fund for women. Today young women across the world grow up to expect less educational, economic and political power than their male counterparts. Half the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens, women in the 21st century still only represent a tiny minority in democratic assemblies. Domestic violence, civil wars and international conflicts continue to destroy womenÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom, power and security in particular. And yet women find themselves systematically excluded from international diplomacy and peace discussions. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights may be enshrined in human rights declarations and egalitarian constitutions around the world, but in global terms of power and independence they are sec ond class citizens.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
In 1888, Sir Francis Galton, a British anthropologist, began his observations of fingerprints while studying the hereditary nature of the human body and they it could reveal about an individual. In 1892, after several years of study, Galton published the book Fingerprints. In his book, he established the importance of the individualization characteristics and permanence of fingerprints. Additionally, his book references the features by which fingerprints can be identified. These characteristics, known in forensics as minutia, are still in use today. Moreover, some veterans of the field still refer to them as GaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s details (Barnes, 2011). Furthermore, in his book, Galton detailed a method of classification which he based on an alphabetical list created by three fingerprint patterns: arch is represented by the letter A, loop is represented by the letter L, and a whorl is represented by the letter W. In order to classify a set of finÃ ¬gerprints using this alphabetic enume ration system, each finger was labeled with the corresponding letter according to its friction ridge pattern. The letters produced using this system, for the right handÃ¢â¬â¢s index, middle, and ring fingers were grouped together, followed by the letters for the same fingers on the hand. After this sequence of letters, the letters produced by this technique for the right thumb and right little finger were added to the sequence, followed by the letters for the left thumb and left little finger (Hutchins, 2011).Show MoreRelatedHistory of Forensic Science6897 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pagesanthropometric system, called signaletics or bertillonage. Bertillon identified individuals by measurements of the head and body, shape formations of the ear, eyebrow, mouth, eye, etc., individual markings such as tattoos and scars, and personality characteristics. The measurements were made into a formula that referred to a single unique individual, and recorded onto cards which also bore a photographic frontal and profile portrait of the suspect (the mug shot). The cards were then systematically filed